Zomwe Zimayambitsa Kusokonekera kwa Magalasi

Kupotoza kwa magalasi ndi chinthu chodziwika bwino pakujambula chomwe chimachitika mukamagwiritsa ntchito ma lens akulu-ang'ono kujambula zithunzi. Ma lens ambali-mbali, kunena mophweka, ndi mandala omwe ali ndi utali wofupikitsa womwe umakulolani kuti mujambule malo ambiri pachithunzi chanu. Ma lens atali-mbali amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pojambula malo ndi zomangamanga chifukwa amatha kujambula madera akuluakulu (ndipo amajambula zinthu zazikulu / zazitali monga nyumba zazikulu kapena mapiri).

Tamron 10-24mm Lens
Tamron 10-24mm Wide-angle Lens

Magalasi otalikirapo amakhala 35mm kapena kuchepera. Choncho, mandala a 15mm adzakhala lens lalikulu, pamene 50mm lens adzakhala "wamba".

Magalasi otalikirana ndi njira yabwino yojambulira malo ozungulira, makamaka mukamawombera mumipata yaying'ono ndipo mulibe malo ambiri oikira kumbuyo kamera yanu. Chifukwa mitundu ya mandalawa imagwiritsa ntchito magalasi omwe amakhala opindika kwambiri kuti azitha kujambula madera okulirapo, amakonda kutulutsa ma lens omwe nthawi zina (koma osati nthawi zonse) amafunikira kuwongolera pazithunzi monga GIMP.

Kusokonekera kwa mandala kudzachitika m'mphepete mwa chithunzi chanu popeza ndipamene galasi lagalasi lanu limapindika kwambiri. Zinthu zomwe zili pakatikati pa chithunzi chanu nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi kupotoza kwa magalasi ochepa kwambiri. Mukapita kutali kuchokera pakati pa chithunzi chojambulidwa ndi mandala akulu, m'pamenenso kusokoneza kumayamba kuchitika.

Mitundu Yakusokoneza

Chithunzi chokhala ndi Negative Distortion
Chithunzichi chili ndi zolakwika zolakwika, zomwe zimawonekera kwambiri pamakona

Mtundu wa kupotoza wopangidwa ndi magalasi atali-angle amatchedwa kupotoza koipa. Kusokoneza kwamtunduwu, komwe kumapitanso ndi dzina kupotoza kwa mbiya, zimachitika pamene zinthu zomwe zili m'mphepete mwa chithunzizo zimawoneka zoweramira mkati. Chifukwa chomwe zithunzi zanu zidzapangire kusokoneza kwamtunduwu ndikuti magalasi a kamera ndi opindika - amapindikira mkati. Kupindika kwa galasi la mandala anu kumasokoneza m'mphepete mwa zithunzi zanu - kuzikhota chimodzimodzi.

Kusokoneza kwa Pincushion kwa GIMP Lens Distortion Tutorial
Chithunzichi chili ndi zosokoneza za pincushion (zopangidwa mongogwiritsa ntchito GIMP)

Izi ndizosiyana ndi kupotoza kwabwino, wotchedwanso kusokonezeka kwa pincushion, zomwe zimachitika pamene zinthu zomwe zili m'mphepete mwa chithunzi chanu ziwoneka zoweramitsidwa kunja. Zithunzi zanu sizikhala ndi zosokoneza zamtunduwu chifukwa lens ya kamera yanu iyenera kukhala yowoneka bwino, kapena yopindika kunja, kuti ipangitse kusokoneza kwamtunduwu. Komabe, ndikofunikira kumvetsetsa mtundu wosokonezawu momwe umagwiritsidwira ntchito kukonza zolakwika zomwe kamera yanu imapangidwira chifukwa imapindikiza zithunzi zanu mosiyana.

Momwe Mungakonzere Kusokonekera kwa Ma Lens mu GIMP

Tsopano popeza mwamvetsetsa bwino kuti kupotoza kwa magalasi ndi chiyani komanso momwe kumayambira, tsopano titha kulowa m'malo mowongolera kupotoza kwa magalasi mu GIMP.

Chithunzichi chinajambulidwa ndi mandala akulu akulu, ndipo sichifunika Kuwongolera Magalasi kuti chichitike

Ndikufuna ndiyambe ndikulozera kuti zithunzi zojambulidwa ndi mandala akulu akulu sizifunika kuwongolera nthawi zonse. Nthawi zambiri, mungafune kusunga kupotoza kuti muwonjezere mtunda pakati pa chinthu chakutsogolo ndi chinthu chakumbuyo, mwachitsanzo, kapena kuti zinthu ziziwoneka zakutali.

Komabe, palinso zambiri zomwe mungafune akanatero ndikufuna kukonza kusokonekera kwa lens. Mwachitsanzo, mwina mumafuna kujambula malo ocheperako, koma simunafune kuti zinthu zomwe zajambulidwa pachithunzi chanu ziwoneke zopotoka kapena zopotoka pachithunzi chomaliza. Izi zikhoza kukhala zoona makamaka pojambula munthu, chifukwa kupotozako kungabweretse zotsatira zosasangalatsa.

Chithunzi cha Maphunziro Amakono - Chojambulidwa ndi lens ya Tokina 11-16mm f/2.8 wide-angle angle pa Canon 7D

Paphunziroli, ndigwiritsa ntchito chithunzi chomwe ndidajambula chomwe chili ndi mtundu komanso malo ocheperako. Ndinajambula chithunzicho ndi lens ya Tokina 11-16mm f/2.8 wide-angle pa Canon 7D. Pachithunzipa, pali kupotoza koyipa komwe kumachitika m'mphepete mwa chithunzicho. Mutha dkwezani chithunzicho kwaulere patsamba langa la Flickr ndi kutsatira. Kuti mutsegule fayilo mu GIMP, ingopita ku Fayilo> Tsegulani ndikusankha fayiloyo pakompyuta yanu.

Dziwani Zinthu Zopotoka

Zimathandizira kuzindikira kuti ndi zinthu ziti zomwe zikusokonekera pa chithunzi. Malo osavuta oyambira ndikupeza mizere yomwe iyenera kukhala yowongoka - ngati mzere wam'mphepete mwa nyanja kapena mipando yowongoka monga tebulo lapamwamba. Pankhani ya chithunzichi, chitsanzo changa chikukhala patebulo. Mizere yopangidwa ndi tebulo iyenera kukhala yowongoka nthawi zambiri, koma chifukwa cha kupotoza kwa lens yakhala yokhota.

Kusokoneza kwa Lens Pansi pa Chithunzi

Kuti ndiwonetsere momwe mbali zokhotakhota za tebulo ili, ndidakokera maupangiri awiri pakupanga kwanga - imodzi yoyimirira pakati pa chithunzi changa, ndi malo amodzi opingasa m'mphepete mwa tebulo langa (lomwe likuyimira muvi wobiriwira) - kenako. jambulani mzere m'mphepete mwa tebulo langa pogwiritsa ntchito chida chanjira (musade nkhawa kuti mupange makongoletsedwe awa - nthawi zambiri mutha kungoyang'ana m'maso - ndikungojambula njirayo kuti musavutike kuwona).

Ndikapanga sitiroko m'njira iyi, mutha kuwona momwe gawo lapansi la tebulo limapindikira. Inde, chifukwa ili pafupi kwambiri ndi pansi pa chimango (ndipo motero pansi pa lens), chinthu ichi chidzasokonezedwa kwambiri kuposa zinthu zomwe zili pafupi ndi pakati pa chimango chathu.

Zinthu Zosokonezedwa ndi Maphunziro a Lens Distortion GIMP

Kupatula mizere yowongoka pachithunzi chathu, palinso zinthu zina zambiri zomwe zimawonetsa kupotoza kwa magalasi. Pachifukwa ichi, miphika yomwe ili pafupi ndi chitsanzo chathu komanso nyali zomwe zili pamwamba pa chitsanzo zimakhala ndi zosokoneza (zozungulira zofiira pa chithunzi pamwambapa).

Pokonza kupotoza kwa magalasi pachithunzi chathu, ndikofunikira kukumbukira kuti sitiyenera kukonza zolakwikazo ndikuwongola zonse. Timangofuna kukonza zolakwikazo ndi kuchuluka koyenera kuti tichepetse kusokoneza komwe kukuchitika.

Tsopano popeza tazindikira zinthu zazikulu za chithunzi zomwe zili ndi kupotoza, titha kupitiliza kukonza maderawa kuti tithandizire kukonza mawonekedwe a chithunzicho.

Gwiritsani Ntchito Zosefera Zosokoneza za Lens

Kubwereza ndi Kutchulanso Gulu Lowongolera Lens

Ndiyambitsa ndondomeko yokonza pobwerezera kaye wosanjikiza wathu wa Chithunzi Choyambirira (dinani pazithunzi zanu mugawo la zigawo, kenako dinani chizindikiro cha "Kubwereza" - chosonyezedwa ndi muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa). Ndisinthanso gawo lobwereza ndikudina kawiri dzina la wosanjikiza pagawo (muvi wobiriwira) ndikulemba "Chithunzi Cholondola." Uwu ndi wosanjikiza womwe tidzagwiritse ntchito fyuluta yathu.

Ngati simukudziwa bwino ntchito ndi zigawo, ndikupangira kuti muwone zanga E-buku "GIMP Book of Layers." 

Zosefera Zimasokoneza Ma Lens GIMP 2 10

Kenako, ndiwonetsetsa kuti ndadina pa Chojambula Cholondola, ndiyeno ndipeza fyuluta ya Lens Distortion kupita ku Zosefera> Zosokoneza> Zosokoneza za Lens (muvi wofiyira). Mukasunthidwa pamwamba pa njirayi ndi cholozera cha mbewa, mudzawona kuti fyulutayo "Imakonza mbiya kapena pincushion lens kupotoza." Izi ndi mitundu iwiri ya zosokoneza zomwe ndakambirana kale m'nkhaniyi.

6 Ma Slider Akuluakulu mu Zosefera Zosokoneza za Lens

Zosefera za Lens Distortion zikatsegulidwa, mudzawona masiladi 6 (omwe akuwonetsedwa ndi bulaketi yobiriwira pachithunzi pamwambapa).

Main

Pangani Zosokoneza Zoyipa ndi Main Slider GIMP

"Main" slider imawonjezera kapena kuchotsa kupotoza kwa dongosolo lachiwiri. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, imawonjezera kapena kuchotsa kupotoza kozungulira komwe kumachitika mkati mwa gawo lalikulu la chithunzi chanu (kuchokera kunja kwapakati pa chithunzi chanu mpaka kunja kwa chithunzi chanu). Ngati ndidina ndikukokera chotsetserekera kumanja pogwiritsa ntchito mbewa yanga (muvi wofiyira womwe uli pachithunzi pamwambapa), izi zitulutsa zotsatira zowoneka bwino - kupangitsa chithunzi chanu kukhala kutali ndi wowonera kapena kupitilira apo chapakati pa chithunzi.

Pangani Zosokoneza Zabwino ndi Main Slider GIMP

Kumbali ina, ngati ndikokera cholowera kumanzere (muvi wofiyira), izi zitulutsa zotsatira zowoneka bwino - kapena zimapangitsa kuti chithunzicho chikhomerere kwa wowonera kapena kutali ndi pakati pa chithunzicho. Izi zichepetsa kuchuluka kwa kupotoza koyipa pachithunzi chathu powonjezera kupotoza kwabwino. (Inde, mumawerenga kulondola - mtengo wocheperako umapangitsa kupotoza kwabwino).

Kuwongolera kwa Lens Kugwiritsidwa Ntchito pa GIMP Tutorial

Popeza chithunzi chathu chili kale ndi zolakwika, tifuna kuwonetsetsa kuti Main slider ali ndi vuto lokonza izi. Pankhaniyi, mtengo wapakati pa -7 ndi -9 umatulutsa zotsatira zabwino. Pamapeto pake, pazithunzi zanu, mtengo wa slider wanu womaliza udzakhala malinga ndi momwe mungaganizire ndipo zimadalira zinthu zingapo pa chithunzi chanu (ie mandala omwe munagwiritsa ntchito, momwe zinthu zinalili pafupi ndi inu komanso ngodya za mandala anu, ndi zina). Mutha kuwona mzere wapansi pa tebulo lathu ukuwoneka kale mowongoka mutakonza izi (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa).

Mphepete

"Edge" slider imawonjezera kapena kuchotsa kupotoza kwa dongosolo. Mwanjira ina, imawonjezera kapena kuchotsa kupotoza kozungulira komwe kumachitika m'mphepete mwakunja kwa chithunzi chanu. Chifukwa chake, chotsitsa ichi sichikonza kupotoza komwe kumachitika pafupi ndi pakati pa chithunzi - madera akutali a chithunzicho.

Pangani Zosokoneza Zoyipa ndi Edge Slider GIMP

Zofanana ndi Main slider, kuyika mtengo wabwino pa Edge slider (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa) kupangitsa m'mphepete mwa chithunzi chanu kupindikira chapakati pa chithunzicho komanso kutali ndi wowonera.

Pangani Zosokoneza Zabwino ndi Edge Slider GIMP

Mosiyana ndi izi, kuyika mtengo woyipa pa Edge slider (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa) kupangitsa kuti m'mphepete mwa chithunzi chanu mukhote panja pakatikati pa chithunzicho ndikuyang'ana wowonera. Pachifukwa ichi, chifukwa ndidadula mbali zakutali za chithunzichi panthawi yosinthira chithunzi chomwe ndidachita chisanayambike phunziroli, chithunzicho sichifunikira kusintha kulikonse (m'malingaliro anga). Ndizofala, komabe, kuti m'mbali zakutali zitha kufunikira kusintha koyipa pang'ono - makamaka mukamagwiritsa ntchito magalasi kumapeto kwakufupi kwa sipekitiramu yotalikirapo (ie 10mm mandala).

Sinthani

Chotsatira ndi Zoom slider. Izi zimakuthandizani kuti musinthe mawonekedwe a chithunzi chanu poyang'ana kapena kutali ndi pakati pa chithunzicho. Izi zimakhala zothandiza mukawonjezera kupotoza koyipa pa chithunzi chanu (mwachitsanzo, ikani Main kapena Edge slider kukhala mtengo wabwino) chifukwa izi nthawi zina zimatha kupangitsa kuti malire a chithunzicho achepe, ndikuwulula mtundu wolimba m'mphepete.

Kusokonezeka kwa Mimbi ndi Edge Slider Kuwulula Mbiri Yakuda

Mwachitsanzo, ngati ndiyika chowongolera cha "Edge" kwinakwake mozungulira 20, muwona maziko akuda akudzaza m'makona ndi mbali za chithunzicho pomwe chithunzicho chakhala chocheperako kuposa malire osanjikiza (mivi yofiira pachithunzi pamwambapa. ).

Kusintha kwa Zoom Slider Lens Distortion GIMP Tutorial

Tsopano, ngati ndiyika mtengo wa Zoom slider penapake mozungulira 9 kapena 10 (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa), ndidzayang'aniridwa mokwanira kuti ndibise madera omwe mtundu wakumbuyo ukuwonekera. Mbali yapansi pa izi ndikuti mukulitsa mbali za chithunzi chanu, komanso mudzataya mtundu wa chithunzi chifukwa chithunzicho chiyenera kukwera kuti chigwirizane ndi zenera la zoom.

Negative Zoom ya Lens Distortion Sefa GIMP

Kumbali ina, ngati ndiyika chotsitsa cha Zoom pamtengo woyipa (penapake -20, wowonetsedwa ndi muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa), izi zidzatulutsa chithunzicho ndikuwulula zambiri zamtundu wakumbuyo (mivi yobiriwira). Ndikufuna kuwonetsa pomwe tikuwonetsedwera kuti mutha kuwona chifukwa chake kusokonekera kwamtunduwu kumatchedwa "kusokoneza mbiya." Maonekedwe a chimango cha chithunzi amafanana ndi mbiya.

Kusokoneza kwa GIMP Pincushion ndi Zoom Slider

Ndisunga chithunzicho kuti ndiwonetsenso momwe chithunzichi chimawonekera chikakhala ndi "kupotoza kwa pincushion" - kapena mwanjira ina ndikuyika "Edge" slider kukhala yoyipa. Pankhaniyi, mutha kuwona kuti m'mphepete mwa chithunzicho (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa) ukufalikira kuposa mbali za chithunzicho (muvi wobiriwira). Mawonekedwe awa akuwonetsa zithunzi zomwe zili ndi kupotoza kwa pincushion.

Ndikhazikitsa slider yanga ya Edge ndi Zoom kubwerera ku ziro ndipo tsopano ndipitilira pazotsatira zina.

Shift X/Shift Y

Ma slider a Shift X ndi Shift Y amakulolani kuti muthe kuwongolera ma Lens Correction pa X kapena Y axis ya chithunzi chanu. Chifukwa chake, m'malo motengera zomwe zikuchitika pakatikati pa zomwe zimasunthira kunja monga zimakhalira mwachisawawa, mutha kuyambitsa pang'ono kumanzere kapena kumanja (kwa Shift X slider) kapena pamwamba pang'ono kapena pansi pakatikati pa chithunzicho. (kwa Shift Y slider).

Ma slider awa amagwira ntchito nthawi zina - monga mukamajambula chithunzi kuchokera mbali, ndikupanga kupotoza kosagwirizana pachithunzi chonse. Mwachitsanzo, ngati mutenga chithunzi kuchokera pamalo otsika ndikuyang'ana mmwamba ndi kumanja, mutha kukumana ndi zolakwika zambiri pansi pakona yakumanzere kwa chithunzicho kuposa kumanja kwa chithunzicho.

Shift X Slider Negative Distortion GIMP

Kupatsa Shift X slider mtengo wabwino (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa) kumasuntha mawonekedwe a Lens Distortion kumanja kwapakati.

Shift X Slider Negative Value Distortion GIMP

M'malo mwake, kupatsa Shift X slider mtengo woyipa (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa) umasinthira kumanzere kwapakati. Zotsatira zake zitha kukhala zobisika mukamayang'ana chithunzi pamwambapa, koma ngati mugwiritsa ntchito cholozera cha mbewa yanu kusuntha Shift X slider mpaka -100, ndiye mpaka 100, ndikupitilizabe kupita mtsogolo, mudzawona. momwe zotsatira zimasinthira pachithunzichi kutengera mtengo wa Shift X slider. Kuonjezera apo, zotsatira zake zidzawoneka pamene Main kapena Edge slider yanu yatsegulidwa kwambiri. Ma slider a Shift X ndi a Shift Y onse sangagwire ntchito pokhapokha mutakhala ndi ziro zosefera za Main/Edge.

Mofananamo, pamene Shift Y slider ili ndi mtengo wabwino, imasuntha zotsatira pamwamba pakatikati pa chithunzi chanu, ndipo ikakhala ndi mtengo woipa imasuntha zotsatira pansi pakatikati pa chithunzi chanu.

Ndisunga masilayidi a Shift X ndi Shift Y kukhala 0 pakadali pano ndipo ndipitilira njira ina.

Yatsani

Chotsitsa chomaliza cha fyuluta ya Lens Distortion ndi "Yalani" slider. Slider iyi imakonza china chake chotchedwa vignetting. Vignetting ndi mdima wa ngodya za chithunzi chifukwa cha kusiyana kwa kuyamwa kwa kuwala. Kusiyana kwa kuyamwa kwa kuwalaku kumachitika chifukwa cha kupindika kwa galasi la mandala anu - m'mphepete mwa mandala anu (kumene galasi limapindika kwambiri) limatenga kuwala mosiyana ndi pakati pa mandala anu.

Lens Distortion Brighten Slider GIMP

Pamene Brighten slider imayikidwa pamtengo woipa poikokera kumanzere (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa), m'mphepete mwa ngodya zanu mudzada (mofanana ndi kugwiritsa ntchito fyuluta ya Vignette mu GIMP).

Lens Distortion Brighten Slider Positive Value GIMP

Pamene Brightness slider ikhazikitsidwa pamtengo wabwino pokokera kumanja (muvi wofiyira pachithunzi pamwambapa), m'mphepete mwa ngodya zanu mudzawala. Mufuna kugwiritsa ntchito mtengo wabwino kwa Brightness slider yanu kuti muchepetse vignetting yomwe imayambitsidwa ndi kupotoza kwa mandala chifukwa ngodya zanu nthawi zambiri zimadetsedwa ndi izi.

Vignetting Yolondola Yokhala Ndi Brighten Slider Lens Distortion Selter

Sindikufuna kuwunikira m'makona kwambiri chifukwa zipangitsa chithunzicho kukhala chowonekera m'mphepete. Pa chithunzichi, ndiyika slider mpaka 20.

Mtundu Wakuseri

Pansi pa zoseweretsa pali "mtundu wakumbuyo," womwe umakupatsani mwayi wosintha mtundu womwe umawonekera kuseri kwa chithunzi chanu mukawonjezera kupotoza koyipa (kupotoza kwa mbiya) popatsa Main kapena Edge slider zabwino (monga tidachitira kale mu phunziro).

Zosefera Zosokoneza Zamtundu Wakumbuyo

Zosasintha zimayikidwa kuti zikhale zakuda, koma mutha kusintha mtundu kukhala mtundu uliwonse womwe mungafune podina pa rectangle yamtundu (muvi wofiyira womwe uli pachithunzi pamwambapa) ndikugwiritsa ntchito bokosi la Background color dialogue box (lomwe lawonetsedwa mobiriwira), kapena kugwiritsa ntchito chida choyandikana ndi eyedropper kuti musankhe mtundu pachithunzi chanu.

Mukakhala ndi zokonda zanu zonse momwe mukufunira, dinani batani la "Chabwino" kuti mugwiritse ntchito zosintha zanu.

Milk Market Wide Angle Hallway Yosinthidwa LC 850

Chosanjikiza chanu cha "Chithunzi Choyenera" tsopano chikhala ndi kupotoza kwa lens - kupangitsa kuti zinthu zomwe zili pachithunzichi ziwonekere kukhala zosasokoneza komanso kuwala kwa ngodya za chithunzicho kumagwirizana ndi kuwala kwa chithunzi chonsecho.

Zikomo powerenga phunziroli! Ngati munakonda, mutha kuwerenga zina zanga Zolemba Zothandizira za GIMP, kapena onani chilichonse changa Maphunziro avidiyo a GIMP.